North and South by Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell

Illustration to the North and South (novel by ...

Illustration to the North and South (novel by Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Yes, I have still been reading.  But no, I did not find the precious time to blog about the books that have filled my summer and autumn months.  LIfe took an unexpected turn for the hectic over the summer period but all has now returned to a, more or less, even keel as far as home and work are concerned so I am back to nearly normal routines.

So, to the book.  This book was a downloaded freebie ebook from the Guttenberg Project that I read on my iPad over the course of many weeks.  I generally have a few ebooks on the iPad, usually free classics, just in case of an unexpected book emergency – that would mean being somewhere without a work of fiction in hardcopy format.  I much prefer an actual rather than virtual book, however when faced with a choice between virtual or non-existent I will pick virtual every time.  I also have to confess to not reading this one on the train. Are there never any book emergencies on the train?  Well yes they do occur, but I refuse to use my iPad during high school rush hour.  This book was read over several weekends spent in rural Buckinghamshire when left to my own devices and nothing in particular to do other than work on the thesis.

Now, as far as North and South goes I thought I had read this book before.  Not so however.  I was only a short way into the book when I realised that I was confusing it with another of Gaskell’s books, Mary Barton, which I had read when a teenager as part of my secondary school English literature reading.  I have also read a fair few Victorian novels by Gaskell, Austen and the Brontes, among others and as time has passed I must admit to conflating some of them together, particularly if they were required reading. I read these books now, despite the fact that at times I find the language and style challenging, as I am fuelled by the conviction that, poetic licence aside, there is, on some level, a degree of contemporary social commentary going on in this genre of book.  A commentary that provides a little window that looks upon the way people lived in the past and the conditions under which they lived.  What made me pick this one up over the summer? I can’t actually remember now, I expect it was something I saw in passing, or some random trail of internet links.

North and South was Gaskell’s fourth novel but her second industrial (or social) novel – the first being Mary Barton. Both novels examine issues of employee-employer relations set against the backdrop of Manchester, or Milton as it is called in North and South.  However, whilst Mary Barton is focused on the working classes and their issues in North and South Gaskell turns her attention to the industrial ruling classes and the mill owners.  The protagonist of the book is Margaret Hale, the daughter of a Church of England clergyman, who has spent her formative years with her Mother’s wealthy sister in Harley Street, London.  On the marriage of her cousin Margaret returns to the family home in the rural New Forest village where her Father is vicar.  Not long after returning home however, the Rev. Hale, having become a dissenter, leaves his Church living and moves the family to the northern town of Milton to take up tutoring wealthy industrialists.  Margaret finds the move north quite an unsettling experience at first, however she eventually meets some of the local working class and learns to appreciate the difficulties they face in their lives.

While the Hales are living in Milton there is industrial unrest between the mill owners and the workers who eventually go on strike, a reflection of the industrial unrest that occurred in the Lancashire mill towns that Gaskell would have experienced first hand.  The fictional strike culminates in something of a riot at Thornton’s mill, owned by one of Rev. Hale’s pupils not particularly liked by Margaret.  During the ruckus Margaret, who was at the mill on an errand for her ailing Mother, is injured after coming to the aid of Thornton.  Thornton realises his love for her and proposes, Margaret declines.  Not long after the strike Margaret’s Mother dies, closely followed by her Father.  Being left alone Margaret returns to the home of her Aunt in Harley Street.  However, Margaret soon inherits property and wealth from a friend of her Father.  She discovers she is Thornton’s landlord, who is now in financial difficulties.  Margaret comes up with a business proposal for Thornton which she puts to him.  At this point both Margaret and Thornton realise they love one another and decide to marry.

The book is very much one of contrasts and tensions.  A very clear contrast is that between the rural and industrial.  First we have the rural, bucolic, south that Margaret returns to after her cousin marries juxtaposed with the grimy industrial north where Margaret moves to after her Father becomes a dissenter.  There are also stark contrasts and differences between Thornton and Margaret, which is at the heart of their not getting on and being at loggerheads for much of the plot. Both characters are world’s apart in background and in attitude.  Margaret is from a more genteel way of life whereas Thornton is a self-made factory owning man.

However, the key contrast for me is in the representation of Margaret Hale with respect to the other female characters, in particular her family, who are represented as being quite faint hearted and delicate.  Margaret’s character however was much stronger, often she being the one that both her Father and her Mother relied upon.  In fact it is Margaret’s strength of character that Thornton finds so attractive and what made me like the book.  Margaret Hale has a strong character, unusually so, it would appear for her time and place.  However, I have many reservations about the weakness of the so-called fairer sex in past times.  History, and literature, being written in the main, by men is not overly concerned with, or about, women.  As such, I feel sure that women were depicted as items of ornament with dull and uninteresting characters.  It is only when we read the likes of Gaskell that we get full-bodied women such as Margaret Hale.

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6 thoughts on “North and South by Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell

  1. Pingback: North and South – Elizabeth Gaskell, Juliet Stevenson « Stewartry

    • I am a bit ambivalent about it to be honest. I think that a living breathing Margaret Hale would never have married The likes of Thornton, nor he her. For me the ending, bringing Thornton and Hale together is more of a plot device to achieve a “happy” ending, and of course we need to bear in mind that when Gaskell was writing a happy ending for women was a good marriage. In reality someone such as Margaret would have married a clergy man, or not at all.

  2. I think Gaskell was very subtle in showing us how very similar Margaret and John really were. So subtle, many people miss it. I think she very deftly uses the developing relationship of Margaret and John to embody one of the main themes of her book – finding common humanity and even friendship/love despite outward-appearing differences. Gaskell is constantly urging us to look beyond the surface appearance of differences in class, upbringing, economic status, etc. When you remove these outward labels and look closely at the nature of John and Margaret’s individual characters we can see that both were strong, intelligent, high-principled, and self-sacrificing people who were very devoted to their families and rather alone. The initial clash of ideals between these two found in the first part of the book are no where to be found in the second half of the novel. Once Thornton declares his love for Margaret, and especially after he saves her from the inquest, there are no more arguments between them. She appreciates his character and knows his true worth. The love story is woven brilliantly among all the happenings. By the end, they truly understand and admire each other. I love this book, it’s my all-time favorite for so many reasons!

    • Yes, I would agree with you, Margaret and John are both strong characters and similar in many ways. However, their love story, for me, is secondary to the social commentary of the period that Gaskell offers. The stark differences between the industrial north and the agricultural south of England that she offers in her descriptions of Helstone and Milton, the details she offers about the conditions of the working class of Milton in contrast to those of the mill owners and southern gentry, and her account of the mill workers strike and the beginnings of social reform are what keep me reading and enjoying Gaskell.

      • The wonderful thing about great literature is that it can speak to everyone in a different way. I’m well aware that for some, it’s the conflict and contrast of the social/economic scene that Gaskell details that appeals. I love the complexity of her novels. She describes the upheaval of the new era, makes thought-provoking social commentary, and weaves into her narrative one of the most passionate love stories of her time. I hate for anyone to miss out on the developing love story, it reaffirms and demonstrates all the forward-thinking commentary she is trying to make.
        I appreciate the more personal, spiritual aspects of the novel, including the love story. All of the issues Gaskell touches on in her novel exist in our modern world in some form. In my opinion, Gaskell is offering not only a discourse on the social/economic challenges of the time, but also a practical solution to progress in bringing down the barriers that divide us: see other as fellow human beings and not as so many groups and types of people. As long as we dwell upon our differences, humanity makes little progress.
        Sorry to go on and on. I really do enjoy discussing all of Gaskell’s themes and elements. Well, at least in N&S or Mary Barton. Cranford was a great bore to me!

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